Marburg virus disease in human


As We’re going to discuss Marburg virus disease in human, Marburg virus vaccine. The Marburg virus treatment, vaccine causes prevention cases and where Marburg virus is founded.  Marburg virus including origins of the virus past outbreaks transmission signs , symptoms and critical complications. which can lead to death from this infection. The Marburg virus is a virus of the family filoviridae.


So if we were to break down the word filoviridae the prefix stands for thread-like appearance and that. Really Marburg virus disease in human denotes the thread like appearance of the virus.  It is in the same family of viruses as the Ebola virusIt is a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus again very key terms here negative sense it’s single-stranded.  It’s an RNA virus there are actually two variants of the Marburg virus one of them. It is known as Lake Victoria Marburg virusThe second one is Ravin Marburg virus.


Back ground introduction about virus!

  • However both of them have similar clinical presentations. They are the same virus now the virus was first identified in an outbreak that occurred in 1967 in Germany in YugoslaviaHere is a map of Germany here and Yugoslavia would have been a country in this area of EuropeThere was a species to species transmission of the Marburg virus from vervet monkeys to humans. What had happened was vervet monkeys were brought from Uganda. They had had the virus. They had transmitted to humans in Europe.
  • The during this first outbreak their mortality rate was very high it was 15 to 25 percent mortality rates. So a quarter of individuals, who became infected died from this infection. Since then there have been several other outbreaks of the Marburg virus so the previous outbreaks include the one we just talked about but more recent ones include a outbreak from 1998 to so here is a map of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

symptoms of Marburg virus

The Marburg virus is a highly contagious virus that causes severe. The fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. The symptoms of Marburg virus disease (MVD) typically appear 2-21 days after exposure to the virus and may include:

  1. Fever
  2. Headache
  3. Muscle pain
  4. Fatigue
  5. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  6. Abdominal pain
  7. Chest pain
  8. Sore throat
  9. Skin rash
  10. Internal and external bleeding, including bleeding from the eyes, gums, and nose

As the disease progresses, patients may develop severe dehydration, shock, and multiple organ failure. The mortality rate for MVD can be as high as 88%, making it a very dangerous disease. If you suspect you have been exposed to the Marburg virus. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately.


 Facts of Marburg virus present in patient ?

  • Marburg virus disease is endemic in Africa (likely in African green monkeys and certain bats) and can be transmitted to humans.
  • Risk factors include exposure to African green monkeys and certain bats in addition, exposure to an infected human is high risk factor.
  • The diagnosis of Marburg virus disease is usually done by specialized laboratories.
  • The disease can be transmitted from person to person by exposure to blood and other bodily secretions.
  • Marburg virus disease is caused by viruses that produce symptoms of fever, chills, headaches. The muscle aches early in the disease; symptoms worsen and may lead to hemorrhagic fever and death.
  • Treatment is limited to supportive care, usually in an intensive-care unit. The prognosis for Marburg virus disease is only fair to poor.
  • The fatality rates vary from about 23%-90%.
  • Complications of Marburg virus infections include eye, nerve and bleeding problems.
  • Research is ongoing, Africa is experiencing more problems with viral diseases as humans increase. Their contact with African animals that previously had little contact with human.
  • Specialists that may be consulted include critical-care specialists, infectious-disease specialists, hematologists, lung specialists and others.
  • Prevention of Marburg viral disease involves avoiding contact with African animals. That may carry the disease and using strict isolation procedures to avoid any bodily fluids or tissues from humans infected with Marburg viruses.



How many % people died 


  • What is believed to have happened is that men working in an abandoned mine in the DRC or exposed to bats. The outbreak was extremely deadly the mortality rate here was 80 to 90 percent.  So 8 to 9 out of ten people, who were infected with this virus died from the infection. Another outbreak that occurred was in Angola in 2004 , Angola is next to the DRC or Democratic Republic of Congo.


  • It’s just southwest , this is actually the largest outbreak of Marburg virus on record at the time of recording. This lesson there were 400 cases of the virus. What had happened , there was a hospital a pediatric ward more specifically. So there was a floor of pediatric patients. There was spread of the virus in this pediatric floor through contaminated transfusion equipment again the mortality right.  Here was very high eighty to 90%. There’s been some recent infections but not to the extent of the Angola. The most of it has been from tourists being exposed to bats in caves in Uganda.


How Marburg virus transmits from one person to other ?


Marburg virus is a rare and highly infectious virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. It is transmitted through close contact with the blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or people.

The following are the main modes of transmission of Marburg virus from one person to another:

  1. Direct contact with bodily fluids: The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with the bodily fluids (of an infected person. This can occur during caregiving, handling of contaminated materials, or sexual contact.
  2. Indirect contact: The virus can also be transmitted indirectly through contact with objects or surfaces contaminated with the virus. Such as needles or medical equipment that have not been properly sterilized.
  3. Airborne transmission: Marburg virus is not typically airborne, but there is evidence to suggest that it can be transmitted through aerosolized particles. It during medical procedures or in laboratory settings.
  4. From infected animals: Marburg virus can also be transmitted from infected animals to humans.  Primarily through contact with the blood or other bodily fluids of infected primates or fruit bats.

It is important to note that Marburg virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted easily. So proper infection control measures should be taken to prevent the spread of the virus. If you suspect that you or someone you know has been exposed to Marburg virus. It is important to seek medical attention immediately.



How Transmit Marburg virus disease from one to another person


Marburg virus disease is a severe and often fatal illness caused by the Marburg virus, a member of the Filoviridae family, which also includes the Ebola virus. The virus is primarily transmitted through contact with bodily fluids, such as blood, saliva, urine, feces, vomit, and semen, of infected individuals.

Here are some of the ways in which the Marburg virus can be transmitted from one person to another:

  1. Direct contact with bodily fluids: Direct contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person, such as blood, saliva, urine, feces, vomit, and semen, can spread the virus.
  2. Contact with contaminated objects: The virus can survive on surfaces and objects for several days, and contact with contaminated objects, such as needles, syringes, or medical equipment, can also spread the virus.
  3. Person-to-person transmission: The virus can be transmitted from person to person through close contact, such as caring for or living with an infected individual.
  4. Contact with infected animals: The Marburg virus is believed to originate from fruit bats, and individuals who come into contact with infected animals, such as monkeys or bats, may also contract the virus




Treatment of Marburg virus


The diagnosis of Marburg virus infection is usually based on a combination of clinical symptoms, travel history, and laboratory tests. Here are some of the mechanisms used for diagnosing Marburg virus infections:

  1. Clinical Symptoms: Healthcare providers may diagnose a patient with Marburg virus infection based on the presence of symptoms. Such as fever, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, diarrhea, and hemorrhagic manifestations (such as bleeding from the nose or gums).
  2. Travel History: A patient’s travel history to areas where Marburg virus is endemic, or recent exposure to individuals who have traveled to such areas, can be important in identifying potential Marburg virus infection cases.
  3. Laboratory Tests: Laboratory testing is essential to confirm a diagnosis of Marburg virus infection. Samples are collected from blood, urine, and other body fluids, and tested for the presence of the virus using methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antigen-capture ELISA.
  4. Serological Testing: Serological testing, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Western blot, can be used to detect antibodies to Marburg virus in a patient’s blood sample. These tests are useful for detecting past infections or determining the extent of an outbreak.
  5. Virus Isolation: The virus can be isolated from blood, urine, or other body fluids using cell culture methods. Virus isolation is considered the gold standard for diagnosing Marburg virus infection, but it is time-consuming and requires specialized laboratory facilities.

In summary, the diagnosis of Marburg virus infection requires a combination of clinical symptoms, travel history, and laboratory testing. It is important to identify and isolate infected individuals quickly to prevent the spread of the virus.

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